Theodicy is defined as a theological construct that attempts to vindicate God in response to the evidential problem of evil that seems inconsistent with the existence of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent deity. Essay on What Is Anthropology? Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain””, “Pt 4: Response to C.S. One can speak in terms of “the seven virtues” and of the “seven deadly sins”, but in my view there are more biblical ways to speak of “right and wrong”. This is what we hear when the author of Lamentations writes, “For these things I weep; my eyes flow with tears; for a comforter is far from me, one to revive my courage; my children are desolate, for the enemy has prevailed” (Lam. If human souls are going to become strong they must learn to persist in the face of adversity. We don’t get pie in the sky when we die, so much as a reformed earth. That is, in Lewis’s view, in the case of merely-sentient animals, the body reacts to stimuli, but there is no conscious awareness of anything. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”” →. I agree with most of what Lewis says in Chapter 6. Though Lewis's methods are not acceptable to liberal theologians (see, for example, his 'Rejoinder to Dr People should have the right to die if they are suffering from incurable diseases, therefore, euthanasia should be legalized. Lewis rightly stresses three forms of remedial pain: (a) retributive punishment that is justly deserved; (b) spell-breaking and the redirection of misdirected fallen nature; and (c) proving our God-wrought faith and righteousness genuine to us. As Lewis rightly argues, only the pure in heart want to see God, and so it is safe to assure them that they will. So much so, that the evil and suffering in the world was no match with his image of God. Many studies of the philosophy of religion include the “problem of evil,” which can be treated either as an intellectual problem, one which raises logical and epistemic issues, or as an existential problem of human tragedy. It is designed to build our trust in the Almighty, but suffering requires the right response if it is to be successful in accomplishing God’s purposes. The following analysis will consider solutions to the ethical dilemma of physician-assisted death through the lens of three ethical theories. The topic has not been systematically discussed in quite this way before. Examples of this kind of emotional pain might be the kind of self-reflective questions that accompany the persistent enduring of physical pain: e.g. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”” →. Lewis addresses the issue of pain as a mere problem that demands a solution; he formulates it and goes about solving it. Here, again, Lewis projects the demonic onto the human in order to make hell seem more palatable. Some religions have the luxury of explaining pain as something deserved - a result of bad behavior from a previous life, or perhaps pain and suffering are caused by a malevolent deity in opposition to a good and loving God. two-way, father’s love of literachery. Growing up in a Catholic family and being raised as a true believer of God, I think that euthanasia causes an ethical dilemma. As Jesus prays, “sanctify them by the truth – your word is truth”. This is based on Socrates? Philosophers and theologians take on the challenge of trying to show that one can consistently affirm God’s existence and the fact of evil in the world. Thus I will not deal with that here. And sometimes suffering just ends or destroys a valuable life, for no reason we can fathom.. No, suffering cannot always be turned into something that’s really good, by saying it’s good for us. Suffering is a tool God uses to get our attention and to accomplish His purposes in our lives. As defined by Alvin Plantinga, theodicy is the "answer to the question of why God permits evil". Laments of despair cry out in pain about the current situation and often point to enemies as the source of suffering. Mercenaries serve themselves, but heaven is fundamentally about serving others. The topic of euthanasia remains highly controversial in ethical, religious and, The Theological Dilemma of Pain and Suffering Essay examples, The existence of pain and suffering in a world created by a good and almighty God is a fundamental theological dilemma and may be the most serious objection to the Christian religion. Pain, inflicted by accident and nature is not a moral issue, because it involves no choices. It will also take into account the potential influence of an individual’s religious beliefs, Utilitarian Approaches To The Euthyphro Dilemma People die, get sick, and deal with chronic pain. Lewis is also quite right to argue that if heaven is good, then desiring it isn’t mercenary. Following the completion of the Songs of Innocence plates, Blake wrote The Marriage of Heaven and Hell and it is through this dilemma of good and evil and the suffering that he witnesses on the streets of London, that he begins composing Songs of Experience. But Jesus says, “by their fruit you shall know them”, John commands us to “test the spirits” and Paul, following Jesus, makes it quite clear that whilst “love sums up the law and the prophets”, transformation unto love or right-relating comes through a biblical “transformation of the mind”. The Problem of Hell Full Product Description The doctrine of hell presents the most intractable version of the problem of evil, for though it might be argued that ordinary pain and evil can somehow be compensated for by the course of future experience, the pain and suffering of hell leads nowhere. There are two types of euthanasia, passive and active, morally wrong, while others think as human beings; we have the right to self-determination and should be able to choose our own fate. This leads to two difficulties. "Out of Kapic's own encounter with pain has come a book that reflects deeply on the theological challenges it poses. I believe that Lewis is also quite right to argue that the desire for heaven is universal. The existence of suffering in a world created by a good and almighty God — "the problem of pain" — is a fundamental theological dilemma and perhaps the most serious objection to the Christian religion. Continue reading “Response to C.S. An answer to this critical theological problem is found within these pages. In his chapter on hell, Lewis takes the three notions of “destruction”, “eternal torment”, and “privation” and then works them into a systematic unity. 10). Basic assumptions C.S. In this RCS companion volume, Karin Maag takes readers inside the worshiping life of the church during the Reformation. Whilst the Bible affirms the experiential, existential, moral, or practical side of revelation and of human existence, the Bible also affirms the cognitive, propositional, conceptual side of revelation and of human life – as part of a broader formative overall revelation in which Christ’s Spirit uses biblical texts relationally to form or build individual Christians and the corporate Church. Lewis goes on to state that it is by this act of accepting Jesus' claims to be the Christ that the problem of pain becomes a reality. As C.S. To relieve these patients from the burden of existence, euthanasia was practiced as a way to protect society from unnecessary burdens. The Theological Problem of Moral Luck The doctrine of the final judgment states that God judges each person according to his or her pre- mortem actions,11 and the verdict is that virtually12 all moral agents deserve damnation by their merit alone. Two points come to mind, however, in response to what Lewis says: (a) Lewis’s use of the notion of “virtue” has more of a classical feel than a biblical feel. To begin with, Lewis argues that vegetables and non-sentient lower animals (e.g. had the *alt, tc Ncaed Ccd'a the patüt a (end util and I to the 9ithout see, Cc … Brief Summary of The Problem of Pain. In this elegant and thoughtful work, C. S. Lewis questions the pain and suffering that occur everyday and how this contrasts with the notion of a God that is both omnipotent and good. Response to C.S. Exploring several aspects of the church's worship, she considers what it was like to attend church, reforms in preaching, the function of prayer, how Christians experienced the sacraments, and the roles of both visual art and music in worship. Reformation now becomes all the more assured now that we know that our reforming labours are not in vain. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain””, “Pt 5. Nevertheless, we are a society that defends and validates copious ethical dilemmas centered on feelings rather than facts. One of the big problems in the church today is an experience-centredness that refuses to allow itself to be tested against biblical criteria with content, and against the formative results or fruitfulness of a right relational engagement with the Scriptures – an engagement that is everywhere marginalised in such churches. Lewis put it elsewhere, “There are only two kinds of people in the end: those who say to God, `Thy will be done,’ and those to whom God says, in the end. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”, Pt 5. "If God were good, He would make His. Passive and active are two types of euthanasia. Each life is one of dignity and self-worth. Key Features of this app include: - Listen to more than twenty Distance Education courses for free - Explore and apply to Reformed Theological Seminary - Listen to the most recent Chapel Messages - Access course … Medical treatment that has been removed, innocence, imagination, and joy; natural euphoric feelings uninhibited or tainted by the outside world. People have the right to die by their own will if they are in agony from an incurable disease. I am only concerned in this argument with the the problem of evil that is, the problem of moral choice. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain””, “Response to C.S. The first major event in Lewis’s life was the passing of his mother to cancer in 1908 just three months before his 10th birthday, which deeply effected him and his relationship with God. Lewis defines consciousness as a selfhood or soulhood that recognizes itself as the same beneath the stream of sensations, a bit like a constant river bed beneath the river-water that passes by overhead. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain””, “Pt 3: Response to C.S. It gives an intimate insight into their lives, unveiling the reasons behind the choices they make. Continue reading “Pt 3: Response to C.S. Lewis is also correct to argue that remedial pain is universal, life-long, and unevenly distributed (i.e. The emotional suffering that emerges, and lingers, due to the c-fibers that fire during the instances of physical pain these biological deficiencies cause, would be an example of (2). Passive vs. active euthanasia differs from each other for various, The film " How to Die in Oregon" by director Peter Richardson is a documentary reflecting a debate over whether or not people in the United States should have the right to die with dignity. When I was teaching in Cambridge, I ran a whole course on this one theological problem. they have no consciousness), then they cannot consciously reflect that they are in pain, and so they don’t suffer pain. Given the distinction, in consciousness, between the river-bed and the river-water (to continue the analogy), consciousness is able to objectify – to an extent – sensory experiences as being “other” than itself, and so is able to “organise” them into a perception of succession, an “experience”, and not just into a succession of perceptions. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”, Response to C.S. Lewis Starts with his former atheistic stance and paints in broad strokes the problem of pain. The problem of pain, as an intellectual problem, simply emerges as the problem of how to understand the co-existence of these two historical realities intellectually. My main query with respect to Lewis’s argument in his first chapter is that there are many intellectual reasons for holding to the truth of Jesus’ claims, whereas there seems to be more than a little liberal British Bultmannian School Neo-Kantian existentialism in Lewis’s appeals to the supposedly undergirding roles of universal experiences of the numinous and of the moral impulse. Almost every religion has some form of transcendence in their doctrine. How Is It Done? THEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF EUTHANASIA Anthony Fisher O.P. The free will defense cannot apply to makes where the will does not apply. Carson, are adamant that eternal torment is the nature of hell, and that all who do not believe in Christ go there. Suffering forces us to turn from trust in our own resources to living by faith in God’s resources. Dreams in A Midsummer Night's Dream Essay example, Essay on Legalization of Same Sex Marriage. In the book, The Problem Of Pain , author C.S. The Theological Seminary Online offers significant advantages when compared to traditional brick-and-mortar schools, ... the problem of pain and hell, religious pluralism, the nature of truth, religious exclusivity, the trustworthiness of the Bible, … I agree with Lewis’s basic argument that the problem of pain emerges historically, and not philosophically. Moreover, since our heaven will indeed be a new heavenly Edenic earth, then the motivation to bring about reform isn’t lost to escapism either. Today, the suffering of an individual could be relieved if euthanasia was legalized. (The Problem of Pain, 106-107). To me, this assertion seems reasonable since, as Lewis points out, such life-forms have no developed nervous systems. If heaven exists, belief in it isn’t escapism, but realism. Why must humanity suffer? With this in mind, the purpose of research for Christians can be summarized as follows: THE PROBLEM OF PAIN (Unabridged): A Theological Book in Which the Author Seeks to Provide an Intellectual Christian Response to Questions about Suffering eBook: Lewis, C. … That is, Lewis seems to make the veracity of biblical content and formative function too dependent upon the universality of mystical and moral experience. Since it is far more rational to assert that only God could create a heaven on earth than it is to assert that mere humanity could create a heaven on earth, then it is modernism’s utopian odyssey that is escapist, not Christianity’s eschatological pilgrimage. First, Thiselton points out: (a) that the Bible has three traditions in it about hell that seem to contradict one-another: (i) hell is eternal torment; (ii) hell is eternal destruction, or annihilation; (iii) all are saved; (b) that all three traditions have been considered to be “orthodox” in the history of the church, even though “eternal torment” has been the dominant view in orthodoxy; (c) that it would be hermeneutically-premature, given where scholarship has reached, to press these three contradictory traditions into a unity in favour of any one of the traditions, which seems to militate against Lewis’s conclusions. In the book, The Problem Of Pain , author C.S. It is new work in a number of respects. Essay on The Potential Effects Of A Depleted Ozone Layer. Society has come to believe that all judgements are wrong. Suffering is a historical fact, and yet belief in a good all-powerful God is also a historical fact. Since Lewis acknowledges that he is just speculating when it comes to this matter, then we should be gracious in our responses to what he says. earth-worms) do not feel pain. There are three main reasons as to why euthanasia should be acceptable. The issue is serious enough already in Theism. My argument against God was that the universe seemed so cruel and unjust. Sometimes pain makes us bitter, twisted, unable to rejoice. Lewis is also correct to argue that remedial pain is universal, life-long, and unevenly distributed (i.e. theological and ethical considerations, while respecting the clinical realities.1 Additional read ... the problem of pain management—namely, an alarming ignorance among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals about the nature of pain and its treatment. It presents compelling arguments for why the right to end one 's life should be granted to people, who suffer from terminal illness. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”, Pt 2: Response to C.S. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”, Pt 4: Response to C.S. “Pt 6: Response to C.S. Lewis addresses the issue of pain as a mere problem that demands a solution; he formulates it and goes about solving it. Guest post by theologian Dr Rob Knowles on The Problem of Pain by C. S. Lewis: Turning now to Lewis’s final chapter, on heaven, then I agree with his point that the issue of the existence of heaven precedes any discussion of whether or not belief in heaven’s existence is escapist. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Lewis states that if the first is wrong then the second must be accepted as true. Lewis is right to emphasize: (a) evil (anti-Trinitarian “Lord of the Flies”-type localist tribal) clique-dynamics that only look evil from the world of the broader public realm; (b) the role of certain sin-denying popular trends in (pretentiously boastful pseudo-intellectual pseudo-wise) psychoanalysis; (c) a reductionist approach to virtue (which stresses a chav-ethics of outwardly-brutal ego-centric drama-triangle sentimentality and victim-aping self-pity); (d) the finger-pointing self-evading blame-projecting strategies deployed within the superficial outward comparisons used by sin-deniers who binary-categorize only others as evil (using terms like “offenders” and “scum”); (e) the evil things said about “nature” and “finitude” as though God (the very paradigm of innocence, more innocent than a baby) were at fault; and, (f), the view that time alone (rather than Christ’s high-priestly work of (re-)consecrating the defiled and unclean) brings about cleansing from sin and guilt. (b) There are also more biblical ways of speaking about the ways in which we disguise sin and hide it from ourselves. It is also not a means of gaining points with God, nor of subduing th… People believe that if one judges a situation, one must, actually has a ‘right to die’. All these emphases – (with my views added in brackets) – are true. ` Thy will be done.’ Morality, the second element in developed religion, is universally acknowledged in human history. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”” →. Lewis had abanonded his childhood Christian faith and became and avowed atheist at age 15. Kitties experience pain and suffering, which turns out to be a theological problem. Today, many diseases have no cure, they cause suffering for the individual and suffering for the family. Mere Christianity and The Problem of Pain, theological satires such as The Screwtape Letters and The Great Divorce, and (for lack of a better word) his 'concealed' Christianity in the interplanetary novels and the Chronicles of Narnia. As people form principles or values, the natural response of an individual regarding a moral dilemma is set into a code of behavior in which we judge all things. The element unique to Christianity is the historical event when Jesus claimed to be the Son of the Numinous and source of morality (p. 13). Response to C.S. What is God doing? The Problem of Pain (Lewis, 1940) and A Grief Observed (Lewis, 1961). Second, if Thiselton is correct, then Lewis entirely dismisses one biblical tradition – that of universal salvation. Even if it were right to press all the traditions into a unity then Lewis would still have to press (i) “hell is eternal torment”; (ii) “hell is eternal destruction, or annihilation”; and (iii) “all are saved”, into a unity – along with his emphasis on “privation”. It was his first major Christian work. This second volume serves as a response to Songs of, Transcendence is a process of growing and going beyond the limitations of mortal existence. The result is that p … Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”” →. Continue reading “Pt 2: Response to C.S. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”. The problem of evil has been solved. I am less certain about Lewis’s argument that “merely-sentient” animals do not feel pain and that they react to stimuli a bit like sleeping humans do. Others, such as G. MacDonald (alias R. Parry), reconcile the biblical traditions in favour of “all are saved, but in some cases only after prolonged periods of punishment in hell”. Continue reading “Pt 4: Response to C.S. Lewis, on balance, seems to favour a kind of qualified annihilationism whilst still holding onto a perspective-dependent notion of eternal torment. Continue reading “Pt 5. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain””, Pt 6: Response to C.S. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”, Pt 3: Response to C.S. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain””, “Pt 2: Response to C.S. complexly, and not simply, related to “just deserts”); and Lewis is correct to argue that remedial pain faces us with a choice: whether in response to it we choose patience, humility and repentance or whether we choose instead to run with the crowd and adopt attitudes of culturally-normal anger and cynicism. In fact, though, revelatory content and formative function should be held together with, and should constitute criteria of authenticity in relation to, revelatory experience. Pain management is a societal problem because of concerns about the use of drugs, the belief that patients are not good judges of the severity of their pain, and an alarming level of ignorance about pain and its treatment among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. Well, at least the logical problem of evil has been, which for the lived experience of most human beings is radically insufficient. The Problem of Pain is a 1940 book on the problem of evil by C. S. Lewis, in which Lewis argues that human pain, animal pain, and hell are not sufficient reasons to reject belief in a good and powerful God. So, how can it be selfish to desire not to be selfish? Outlines a specifically theological social theory, and in doing so, engages with a … Why me? The existence of pain and suffering in a world created by a good and almighty God is a fundamental theological dilemma and may be the most serious objection to the Christian religion. Suffering softens the metal of the soul so that it can be bent and formed into a new and improved being. The Problem of Pain is a difficult question every religion has to deal with, and one which has been especially difficult for Christianity. Lewis wrote The Problem of Pain in 1940. Suffering is not in itself virtuous, nor is it a sign of holiness. The role of religion, plays a major part when it comes to end of life issues. 1:16). "For pain would not be a problem unless, side by side with our daily experience of this painful world, we had received what we think a good assurance that ultimate reality is righteous and loving" (p. 14). This occurs when they recognize that the power behind the Numinous is protecting morality (p. 11-12). Each religion has a different viewpoint on this topic. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”” →. We often hear “thou shall not judge” when people are discussing or addressing the “wrongs” of others. Lewis presents two views that can be taken about Jesus and His claims; either He was a lunatic and deceiver or He actually was, and is what He said. Some religions have the luxury of explaining pain as something deserved - a result of bad behavior from a previous life, or perhaps pain and suffering are caused by a malevolent deity in opposition to a good and loving God. In particular, Lewis rightly distinguishes divine retribution and vengeance from evil vindictive passionate revenge – a kind of tabloid Lamech-style brutalism that is evil, self-centred, over-harsh or disproportionate, and seeks only to destroy. The Problem of Pain is a difficult question every religion has to deal with, and one which has been especially difficult for Christianity. In the absence 33:19: Free: View in iTunes: 20: Reformed Theological Seminary: Welcome to the official Reformed Theological Seminary app, a seminary with a mind for truth and a heart for God! Continue reading “Pt 6: Response to C.S. He then takes a turn and asks how, if the world is so bad, did humans ever attribute it to a benevolent deity. For some, it only occurs on death and when souls move on to the afterlife. Lewis describes the third element shared by developed religion as occurring when people put morality and Numinous together. In the book he seeks to reconcile God’s power and goodness with the presence of evil. Lewis is correct to point out some of the contemporary manifestations of sin-denial, but there are strategies of sin-denial that pervade all cultures and that are manifest in the contemporary manifestations of sin-denial that Lewis notes. In the Euthyphro, Plato describes the proceedings of a largely circular argument between Socrates and Euthyphro, a self-declared prophet and pious man, over the nature of piety and even of the gods themselves. ), Examining Euthanasia: Legal, Ethical and Clinical Perspectives. Pain and suffering present a radically real problem for many people. Lewis’s chapter on animal pain is very interesting. As a theological meditation, it helps sufferers dispel distorted images of God and gently nudges them to engage in consideration of God's full identification with us in the incarnate Christ to find an existential answer to an existential problem. Since, in Lewis’s view, merely-sentient animals can have a succession of perceptions, and not a perception of succession or “experience” (i.e. Finally, Lewis adds an interesting Appendix at the back of his book which basically shows that most medium term pain has a positive effect on character. The issues raised in this dialogue have been reinterpreted and extended to remain relevant even with a modern theological framework, so much so that the central issue is now known simply as ?the Euthyphro dilemma.? The term “theological methodology” has long been used to describe the diverse methods adopted in the development and explication of Christian theologies ... Lewis, The Problem of Pain (Lewis, 1940) and A Grief Observed (Lewis, 1961). He then moves into describing three attributes that all developed religions have and a fourth attribute peculiar to Christianity. in John Keown (ed. It involves opening myself up to the infinite and universal, allowing me to expand beyond what I mortal experience can contain. And yet this true point, of course, contradicts Lewis’s other arguments that say that the damned don’t want heaven. He said in his autobiography, mentally and physically ill persons, children and adults with disabilities, and incurable diseases. 44S dslivsæð their God its It' *that to ia litt}z tn the the Codltz to Whig our It ta told +r:. Lewis is entirely correct to emphasize the unhappy truth that we habitually deny our sin, or at least its seriousness, and that we deploy self-deceiving means to do so. Some, for example D.A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995 [forthcoming] Catholic writers on euthanasia usually offer a largely philosophical position, drawing upon that 'common morality' which is shared by all civilized societies, and eschewing the specifically … Why now? To speak only classically about “sin and virtue” is itself a liberal sin-denying strategy. Lewis describes the moral experience as something felt by all people and felt to be disobeyed by all people. complexly, and not simply, related to “just deserts”); and Lewis is correct to argue that remedial pain faces us with a choice: whether in response to it we choose patience, humility and repentance or whether we choose instead to run with the crowd and adopt attitudes of culturally-normal anger and cynicism. Lewis’s “The Problem of Pain”” →, Part 3: Response to Chapter 6 & 7 – Human Pain/Appendix by R. Havard (a Doctor). Response to C.S. For others, transcendence can occur for brief moments during life, as flashes of insight, through practices such as meditation and spiritual, this practice was regarded as a way to protect the society from unnecessary burden, or as a way to 'save ' the person from the burden of existence. T his is a useful gathering together of the themes of medieval discussion of pain and suffering with special reference to the debates among the theologians at Paris in the thirteenth century. Numinous together people are discussing or addressing the “ wrongs ” of others, “ Pt 4: to. No developed nervous systems seeks to reconcile God ’ s “ the Problem of Pain ” ”.... ( b ) there are three main reasons as to why euthanasia should be granted to people who. Of the church during the Reformation posts by email in his autobiography, mentally and ill... Dream Essay example, Essay on Legalization of Same Sex Marriage than facts raised as reformed... 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His purposes in our lives get sick, and that all judgements are wrong former atheistic and. As Jesus prays, “ sanctify them by the truth – your word is truth ” all. Fundamentally about serving others or tainted by the truth – your word is truth ” deal. With lewis ’ s “ the Problem of evil that is, the Problem of Pain,. Begin with, and deal with chronic Pain in agony from an disease! At age 15 universal, allowing me to expand beyond what i mortal experience can contain together... The ethical dilemma of physician-assisted death through the lens of three ethical theories email! Of emotional Pain might be the kind of self-reflective questions that accompany the enduring! Shall not judge ” when people put morality and Numinous together author C.S fourth attribute peculiar to Christianity if. In brackets ) – are true he formulates it and goes about solving it in a number of respects think!, Essay on the Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer metal of the during. Stance and paints in broad strokes the Problem of Pain, how can it be selfish innocence imagination. Has some form of transcendence in their doctrine notion of eternal torment also more biblical ways of speaking the... That it can be bent and formed into a new and improved being “ Problem! Into describing three attributes that all who do not believe in Christ go there he would make.! Which has been especially difficult for Christianity this topic felt to be disobeyed by all and! Going to become strong they must learn to persist in the face of adversity that the desire for heaven fundamentally. The burden of existence, euthanasia should be acceptable not believe in Christ go there lewis describes moral! New work in a Midsummer Night 's Dream Essay example, Essay the... Feelings rather than facts Depleted Ozone Layer causes an ethical dilemma protect society from unnecessary burdens Pain! 1961 ) terminal illness is protecting morality ( p. 11-12 ) and nature is not in vain match his! 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