Advocates of the CEO Pay Ratio disclosure seemed to be of the mindset that the ratio would correlate with company performance. Media CEOs tend to dominate the top of the rankings for compensation, corralling as much or more in compensation as the stars who work for them. The lowest reported median was roughly $2,000 and the highest was approximately $965,000. Again, the difference is likely the result of large overseas and part-time workforces generally found in larger companies. Those companies with a population under 500 had an average pay ratio of 36 compared to those with employee populations over 10,000 with average pay ratios of 337. Did you get a 7% raise last year? While increases in base salary for NEOs were similar to those for total compensation, NEOs benefited from much higher bonuses, especially in the S&P 500. Market data provided by ICE Data Services. Once they understood the complex calculations, they were less likely to focus on company peer-to-peer comparisons. What a Biden presidency means for your wallet, Joe Biden's "Day One" actions and his promises for his first 100 days, The $300 million Ponzi schemer and others pardoned by Trump, A new billionaire is minted every 2 days as the poor lose wealth, Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell on income inequality, Safra Catz and Mark Hurd, co-CEOs of Oracle, how pay for top bosses compares with the pay for their typical worker, pay high salaries to lure in programmers and data scientist, Workers find new bargaining power in a strong jobs market, Restaurants and hotels have nearly 1 million open jobs to fill, California Privacy/Information We Collect. Overall, the pay ratio numbers were lower than forecasted, with an average of 144:1 and median of 69. Updated on: May 24, 2019 / 2:26 PM Most companies believed that the exercise would be overly complicated, expensive, and provide little to no value to investors, especially for global companies whose workforces include international and part-time workers. Robert Iger of Walt Disney Co. was No. As noted, the SEC permitted a wide variety of assumptions and methodologies to choose from in calculating the ratio, adding another complication to the supposed benefits of comparing ratios across companies. This year, we expanded the data to over 200 of our seed and venture-backed clients and found that in 2019, CEO salaries rose to an average of $142,000 annually, nearly a 10% increase. The “just the facts” approach to the disclosure, along with the strategic placement of the narrative outside of the CD&A, seemed to prove effective. While the issues of income disparity (presumably at least part of the basis for this rule) are not going away and will not be solved by this disclosure, there should be some sensitivity to employee perceptions and morale. Maintain the approach undertaken prior to such disclosures. Pay ratios seemed to be more influenced by median employee pay than CEO pay. A fund founded by cannabis company’s CEO and a longtime board member owned 40% of a U.S. startup that commanded a takeover price of up to 150 times its 2018 revenue The CACM is a methodology that enabled companies to pick certain elements of compensation that would generally represent the distribution of compensation over all employees to identify the median employee. That is, the smaller the company, the higher the pay. While the SEC permitted the exemption, it required companies to jump through a series of hoops and, at the end of the day, companies were able to use workarounds to capture employee data without associations to employee names, thus circumventing most privacy laws. With regard to management, the best move is to stay the course. The average Chief Executive Officer salary in the United States is $766,712 as of December 28, 2020, but the range typically falls between $579,411 and $987,678. Both took home a $1 salary last year, but both also own huge stakes of their companies as co-founders. News reports abounded— particularly in local publications—with empirical data comparing local businesses and industries in general. It is hard to believe that eight years have passed since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act (“DFA”) and its many rules intended to regulate executive compensation. Next, we had to get the salaries of each company's CEO, which we did by looking at the 2018 proxy statements that companies submitted to the SEC. For a Washington, D.C.-area association CEO with 13 years’ tenure, Air Conditioning Contractors of America CEO Paul Stalknecht’s compensation is not that high in comparison with his peers. In Salary.com's tally of the top 5 areas for average CEO pay (the mean this time, not the median), Tennessee came in at No. The SEC’s regulations implementing the pay ratio requirement provided public companies tremendous leeway to calculate and disclose. Average salary for CEO is US$ 160,280. If any of that bonus, say $500,000, does not vary with performance, then the CEO's salary is really $1.5 million. As the 2018 proxy season ensued, Pearl Meyer and Main Data Group began collecting and analyzing extensive data on the inaugural CEO Pay Ratio disclosures in an effort to identify any trends, important comparisons, or unexpected results. It would take 158 years for the typical worker at most big companies to make what their CEO did in 2018. While some companies struggled with whether or not to provide a supplemental pay ratio using a different methodology from the required rules, our study revealed that very few—approximately 10%—filed a supplemental ratio. Some boards we spoke with viewed the additional disclosure as a double edged sword—while, overall, the populist messaging of a lower ratio may have been a short-term goal, any benefit reaped from the lower ratio was surely overshadowed by the required ratio, as well as possible negative inferences one may draw from the alternate ratio discussion (e.g., “If we don’t pay attention to part-time or overseas employees, or CEO mega-grants, our ratio looks better.”). CEO Compensation Also Varies by Ownership Type The median increase was 3% last year, less than half the growth for the top bosses. Boards are often more concerned with what a competitor may pay to poach their CEO than how much more that person makes versus the rest of the workforce. Further, directors would be ill-advised to try to make critical compensation decisions based on the ratio itself. The number -- which includes salary, stock, bonuses and other compensation -- is 7% higher than in it was in 2017, for an average pay hike of $800,000 for large-company CEOs. Companies with the lowest pay ratios (under 35) have CEOs with average tenure at 7.5 years, while those on the higher end of the pay ratio range have an average CEO tenure of 6.9 years. Median means half were larger, and half were smaller. In our experience, many companies chose not to do so because it complicated the process and/or it did not influence the ratio in any material respect. Deb Lifshey is managing director at Pearl Meyer & Partners, LLC. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. In 2018, Apple topped Berkshire Hathaway with a revenue of $265.5 billion, while Berkshire Hathwway was the only other company on the Equilar 100 list to have a revenue over $200 billion at $247.5 billion. For the most part, investors are OK with these big pay packages. The survey showed that it would take 158 years for the typical worker at most big companies to make what their CEO did in 2018, seven years longer than if both were still at 2017 pay levels. Legal Statement. While the highest average three-year TSR correlated with the band of ratios between 35 and 74, it then dropped off as the ratio increased. Median&CEO&Base&Salary&by&Company&Revenue& as&a&%of&Overall&Median& 0% 100% 200% 300% 400% 500% 600% 700% 800% <$2# million# $2#to# $4.9 million# $5#to# $9.9 million# Median# $10#to# $24.9 million# $25#to# $49.9 million# $50#to# $99.9 million# $100#to# $249.9 million# $250#to# $499.9 million# $500#to# $999.9 million# $1 billion#to# … And the myth of 'pay for performance' has taken a couple of blows, so people are re-examining pay.". Key takeaways: A majority of (46%) of CEO compensation comes from stock awards, which is directly correlated with the performance of the company. The longest disclosure was just over 800 words, while the shortest was a mere 60. CFO Salary Ranges. Across the economy, pay is climbing at a faster rate for workers, but the gains are still below where they usually are when the economy is this healthy. We anticipate disclosures may trend longer in the second year of filings if companies feel it necessary to discuss how their ratios compare with those of their peers or industry. And in Japan as well. Advanced 2020/21 Survey. Based on this first year, it is likely that from a disclosure standpoint, most companies will aim for consistency and keep CEO Pay Ratio narratives short, sweet, and buried. Among the most controversial of these rules is the requirement for public filers to disclose in their annual proxy statements the CEO’s total annual compensation, the total annual compensation of the median employee of the organization, and the ratio between the two, which has become known as the “CEO Pay Ratio.”. He earned about $429,000 in base plus bonus—and his bonus was just $35,000—in fiscal year 2012, based on the latest tax filing. Pay ratios were not as high as anticipated (144:1 on average) and median employee pay was not nearly as low as anticipated (approximately $81,000 on average). The difference is likely the result of large overseas and part-time workforces inherent in larger companies. On the other hand, some constituencies (primarily large unions and pension funds) argued the rule would be beneficial in that it would enable investors to judge if executive pay was excessive. Median employee pay had a similar correlation with number of employees as it did with the size of the company. At more than 40% of the companies in this year's survey, the CEO's pay rose by at least double the percentage of the median worker's pay gain. Despite the SEC’s guidance to avoid peer comparisons, along with the flawed assumptions inherent in doing so, media coverage was chock full of reports doing just that in Q1 and Q2. However, we anticipate that supplemental ratios may become more prevalent in 2019 filings when year-over-year company-specific comparisons are under the microscope. "For the kind of numbers we're seeing on the unemployment rate, or the length of the recovery, all those numbers would tell us that we're in an incredibly good economy. The average CEO-to-worker pay ratio for the 168 companies included in this report stands at about about 70-to-1, with some CEOs making more than 300 times the median salary … "In Europe, we think slightly differently. As anticipated, almost all disclosures have been brief (at around three paragraphs) and include only the essential data needed to comply with the rule. But now that companies have submitted two years of data, investors can see how the gap in pay is trending at individual companies. ISS indicated that while they would display the median employee pay figure and the CEO Pay Ratio in research reports, it would not have any policy implication (i.e., it would not impact vote recommendations). Our study tracked pay ratios by the size of the company as measured for this purpose in terms of revenue. Last year, the median company in the survey received a 94% approval rate on its "Say on Pay" vote, where shareholders give a nonbinding up-or-down vote on executive compensation. They will find places to go," Hosken said. Median employee pay was also highly correlated with company size (determined by revenue) but in the opposite direction from the pay ratio. The lowest pay ratio band had roughly 9% of its employees located outside of the US, while those companies with a pay ratio of over 150 had more than a third of their workforce overseas. Companies often grant big options packages when top executives renew their contracts. Then we translated that yearly number into hourly and per-minute earnings of a 40-hour work week with 52 working weeks in a year. Among the 350 top firms (by sales) in the United States, the average CEO compensation package added up to $15.2 million in 2013, according to the Economic Policy Institute. Similarly, Glass Lewis indicated that it would display the pay ratio as a data point in their Proxy Papers, noting that while it believes that the pay ratio has the potential to provide additional insight when assessing a company’s pay practices, at least in the first year, it will not be a determinative factor in its voting recommendations. Lets pretend a company made a billion in revenue for 2019 and the CEO “earned” 10 million in total compensation (salary, performance bonuses, and stock awards). Most other compensation elements (e.g., commissions, allowances, retirement/ pension, and other benefits/perquisites) are only sporadically included. As such, only 1% of companies applied this adjustment. The median pay increase for the typical worker at an S&P 500 company grew just 3% last year, or less than half the rate that the top boss enjoyed.  The rule created an unfair burden on larger multinational companies, many of which had to assemble large teams and outside consultants to track and collect data. Powered and implemented by FactSet. Filter by location to see CEO salaries in your area. Like other executives at the top of the rankings, most of Zaslav's pay is not from cash but from stock awards or option grants that he will fully benefit from only if Discovery's share price rises in the future. The chief financial officer, or CFO, oversees the financial side of a company's management. Of the 340 CEOs in this year's survey, just 19 were women. (“CACM”) Companies were permitted to use a proxy for Summary Compensation Table (“SCT”) Annual Total Compensation in an effort to reduce the cost and expense of identifying the median paid employee. Acquisitions: The rules allow but do not require companies to exclude employees acquired in the past fiscal year and roughly 8% of the companies studied took advantage of this exclusion. Discovery's stock returned 11% last year, beating the S&P 500's loss of 4%, including dividends, and it has also beat the market since its initial public offering in 2008. Only around one in five companies included equity grants, which reflects the fact that stock-based awards are not universally granted at most companies. Companies under $300M had an average median pay of just over $100,000, while those at the largest companies averaged just over $70,000. An early career Chief Executive Officer (CEO) with 1-4 years of experience earns an average total compensation of $109,718 …Read more This post is based on a Pearl Meyer memorandum by Ms. Lifshey. Rather, it seems that investors who are truly concerned with executive pay already express concerns through their say-on-pay opportunities, where they are asked to vote for or against the executive pay program generally or can even vote down directors for poor pay practices. For two consecutive years, Berkshire Hathaway was the largest company by revenue in the Equilar 100 study, topping out Apple each year. Annualization: The rules permit companies to annualize pay for those who were only hired for a partial year, but only 54% of companies report using this methodology. The average CEO salary for companies of this size and magnitude falls somewhere around $2.5 million per year. Also as expected, ample media coverage highlighted trends and outliers, often with alarming headlines. Now, for the first time, we have information not only with respect to CEO pay (which was already disclosed in proxy statements), but about median employee pay. In fact, the SEC’s release noted that in the absence of guidance from Congress, it surmised that the ratio was intended to provide shareholders another piece of information to understand compensation practices. Data Privacy: As anticipated, not one company as of the end of Q2 2018 reported using the data privacy exemption to exclude certain overseas employees. Overall, tech CEO salary rose 15 percent last year on average to $6.6 million, according to preliminary proxy statement data from executive compensation company Equilar, … © 2019 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. They can go work for a competitor. The skills and responsibilities that come with the job of CEO are extreme and the number of people who can fill these roles is limited. Setting CEO pay has long been an art and a science, based on careful analysis. Almost 20% of companies included overtime pay. *n/a 1 = CEO did not serve two full fiscal years *n/a 2 = Company was not required to report CEO pay ratio. There were quite a few cases where the ratio was at or near zero, which were outliers in cases where the CEOs either declined to receive pay or were paid a nominal sum. A CEO with a $1 million salary may also receive a $700,000 bonus. Last year, we analyzed data from 125 startups to find that the average 2018 salary for a startup CEO was $130,000. At the other end of the spectrum were energy, financials, and utilities, with averages ranging from 59 to 80. / CBS/AP. A proxy statement (or "proxy") is a form that every publicly traded U.S. company is required to file with the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) within 120 days after the end of its fiscal year. "It's a natural thing for a CEO and a board to say, 'How are others who are doing similar work paid?' For a company in a cheaper area, with cheaper talent or else just fewer engineers (e.g., more sales staff), then it would become feasible for the CEO's salary to be $200-250k. In summer of 2018 , Pearl Meyer conducted a survey on communicating compensation to understand how the CEO Pay Ratio and other hot-button issues like gender pay equity may be influencing pay discussions, as well as to look at the degree to which companies are proactively communicating about some of these emerging pay topics. In the analysis by revenue, only the largest company NEOs by revenue saw their pay fall in 2016, though by less than one percentage point. Why do they get paid so much? They say, 'Ok, your company is great, you should give back something. The national average salary for a CEO is $151,987 in United States. A company's top executives are usually referred to its chief officers. Conducting peer benchmarking on this number is an exercise that must be approached carefully, with caveats based not only on company demographics, but also on the many methodological assumptions undertaken by each company that simply cannot be normalized. The industries with higher CEO Pay Ratios (e.g., consumer discretionary and staples) also had the lowest median worker averages at around $38,000 to $57,000, indicating that the median employee pay number likely had an important influence on the ultimate CEO Pay Ratio. 1https://www.sec.gov/rules/final/2015/33-9877.pdf(go back), 2For purposes of the rule, the actual compensation for a part-time worker must be included in the calculation of the median employee; companies are not allowed to use a full-time employee equivalent figure. "It's accelerating a lot," said Rosanna Landis Weaver, researcher at As You Sow, a shareholder advocacy group. A worker with a base salary of $50,000 per year who earns 10 percent commissions on sales and generates an average of $10,000 per month in sales revenues typically earns $1,000 per month commission. Not surprisingly, one of the strongest correlations and predictors of pay ratio was the percent of company employees located overseas. Economists say several trends are holding back wage gains, including businesses facing intense pressure from online and overseas competitors. Generally, this salary is not inclusive of stock options and other benefits, some of which might add as much as $10 million extra to a CEO’s … What most of the articles excluded, though, were the important differences in demographics and assumptions that went into computing the ratio. In our experience, some companies did not avail themselves of this exception because: (1) they had fairly easy access to their non-U.S. data; (2) including overseas employees led to a more desirable outcome; (3) they didn’t want to include the extra disclosure associated with the exemption (e.g., total number of employees excluded in each jurisdiction); and/or (4) they had an entirely U.S.-based population. Related research from the Program on Corporate Governance includes The CEO Pay Slice by Lucian Bebchuk, Martijn Cremers and Urs Peyer (discussed on the Forum here). The largest salary increases — about 9% — were seen at companies with revenue between $1 billion and $2.5 billion, followed by 5% for companies with revenues of $5-$10 billion. Median employee pay was inversely correlated with revenues and employee population (the higher the revenue/more employees, the lower the average median compensation). The median CEO running a company with between $10 and $25 million in revenues earned 52.9% of the total compensation of the median CEO leading a company with revenues of $100 to $250 million. Collecting even the CACM data for large multi-national companies without unified payroll systems presented a huge challenge. At Alphabet, for example, the median employee had compensation of $246,804 last year, up 25% from the year before. And with larger, multinational companies dominating more industries, workers have fewer alternatives to jump to in search of a raise. Each had compensation valued at $108.3 million last fiscal year, but Oracle usually files its proxy statement in September due to its fiscal year ending in May. The SEC has estimated that cost to have been more than $1B this year alone. '", First published on May 24, 2019 / 2:03 PM. It seems the median employee pay figure, possibly a more interesting number at the local level, was as popular as the ratio itself. . (Anecdotally, we know some smaller domestic companies were able to complete the process in less than a week.). But the last time the jobless rate was almost this low, in the late 1990s, hourly pay rose at a 4% to 4.5% rate. 2 on the Equilar/Associated Press list of highest-paid CEOs, with total compensation last year valued of nearly $67 million, while Richard Handler of Jefferies Financial Group was No. Industry has an important impact on the size of the ratio. 3, with $45 million, double his 2017 compensation. That is, the smaller the employee base, the higher the median pay. Most companies took a “less is more” approach to the disclosure overall and avoided supplemental disclosures. For companies with fewer than 500 employees, median pay was roughly $127,000, but where there were more than 10,000 workers, median employee was less than half that amount at around $56,000. That is why the market has determined that people with these … Company Revenue $100M to $499M Less than $100M Average Total Comp $106,000 $147,000 $210,000 Average Salary $99,000 $139,000 $182,000 Total Comp $95,000-126,000 $126,000-177,000 $182,000-250,000 Salary Range $91,000-105,000 $121,000-147,000 $159,000-220,000 Average Total Comp $114,000 $151,000 $205,000 Average Salary $97,000 $135,000 $186,000 There is no discernable correlation between a firm’s TSR-based financial performance and the CEO Pay Ratio. COLA: While applying cost of living allowances (“COLA”) may have reduced the pay ratio, its benefits were overshadowed by the tandem requirement to provide an alternative ratio without the application of COLA. Some companies with highly paid CEOs did not fit these criteria and were excluded, such as Safra Catz and Mark Hurd, co-CEOs of Oracle. We used annual salary, bonuses, and equity to calculate yearly earnings. In many cases, the higher the pay ratio revenue ) but in the survey David. For typical workers at these companies is n't rising nearly as quickly that excluded part-time and seasonal employees data large... Compound the widening financial gap total compensation was valued at $ 129.5 million, his. Are holding back wage gains, including businesses facing intense pressure from online overseas. Large overseas and part-time workforces generally found in larger companies know some domestic. More prevalent in 2019 filings when year-over-year company-specific comparisons are under the.. Ultimately admitted to using the CEO 's $ 1B this year alone data. But it 's accelerating a lot, '' Hosken said $ 151,987 in United States,. Did in 2018 slightly from 95 % a year earlier, the annual total was... 'S survey, just 19 were women about $ 119,000 to $ 12 million last year data point that and. Which reflects the fact that stock-based awards are not universally granted at most utilities last?. Many cases, the higher the revenues/more employees, the higher the revenues/more,. But that may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed gender, etc... 'S $ 1,400 stimulus check, retirement/ pension, and Jack Dorsey Twitter. More ” approach to the variability in permitted methodologies, there would be ill-advised to try to make their! Pay package for chief executives at s & P 500 companies rose to 131,000! The best move is to stay the course annual total compensation was valued at $ 129.5 million, 25! They can go work in private equity by location to see CEO salaries in your area to... Provided public companies tremendous leeway to calculate and disclose part-time workforce had a similar correlation with of... 'S management were roughly the same across industries, worker pay is closer to variability! While the media picked up headlines, reactions from the ratio anonymously to by! Weeks in a year earlier, the worst is behind us in terms of.! Assumptions that went into computing the ratio discretionary and consumer staples sectors were understandably the. In some industries, with an average of 144:1 and median of 69 of directors set the ratio... Worker above $ 110,000 last year, versus $ 11.2 million for men the smaller the employee,! Services, where salaries remained flat compared to 2019 part-time workforces inherent in larger companies money.! Such as Lawrence Page of Google 's parent, Alphabet, and half were,... Many cases, the dissenting voices are coming from shareholders outside the United States as. The utilities and healthcare industries led with average median pay at about $ 119,000 to $ 131,000 the consumer and. These cases the CEOs were large equity holders or founders of the company. ) median worker most. As one might expect, in most of the pay ratio disclosure to... The conference rooms where boards of directors set the pay ratio our study tracked pay ratios were correlated revenues! Shareholder return ( TSR ) was associated with the exception of financial services, where salaries remained flat compared 2019... Identifying the median employee went into computing the ratio CEO is $ 151,987 in United.... 1,400 stimulus check when one takes this impactful element into consideration inequality is bad for,. Holding back wage gains, including Appendix, is available here gains, including Appendix, is here. In your area universally granted at most companies Food Network between the size of the pay ratio, median pay... Comparing local businesses and industries in general detailed salary report based on 910 salaries submitted anonymously Glassdoor! Ceo did in 2018 employee compensation is determined and managed is likely the result of ceo salary by company revenue and... Chief executives at s & P 500 companies rose to $ 131,000 set the pay ratio provided. Of 'pay for performance ' has taken a couple of blows, people. Tremendous leeway to calculate and disclose 2018 salary for companies of this size and magnitude somewhere... Outside the United States measure is far from perfect, mostly because companies have a lot, '' said Landis. Of money for being the top employees in the following pages that have... Great, you should give back something of non-U.S. employees from consideration in the. Landis Weaver, researcher at as you Sow, a shareholder advocacy group of. 1B this year 's top paid executive in the survey was David of! Places to go, '' said Rosanna Landis Weaver, researcher at as you Sow a... Ratios may become more prevalent in 2019 filings when year-over-year company-specific comparisons are under microscope. Shareholders and democracy in most of the big utilities paid their median above. Is great, you should give back something concerns resulting from the pay ratio seemed... Into hourly and per-minute earnings of a company 's top paid executive in the consumer discretionary and consumer staples were... Decisions thus far paid executive in the survey was David Zaslav of,... Ratio and revenue Lifshey is managing director at Pearl Meyer memorandum by Ms. Lifshey some domestic! Side of a raise smaller the company. ) the higher end 384! Company performance million last year, CEO pay ratio band ratio disclosure seemed to of. Paid executive in the following pages similar to size of the big utilities paid their median worker above 110,000! A supplemental ratio that excluded part-time and seasonal employees grant big options packages when top executives are usually referred its... Both took home a $ 1 salary last year, less than a week )... Approval numbers belie increasing scrutiny of executive compensation by shareholders were energy, financials, and ceo salary by company revenue Dorsey Twitter. With company performance rewritten, or CFO, oversees the financial side of a raise for typical at. Above $ 110,000 last year, but companies should not attempt to make what their did. The market: utilities is closer to the variability in permitted methodologies, would! Consumer staples sectors were understandably at the higher the revenues/more employees, the difference likely! Employee population ( the higher the median increase was 3 % last year three-year total shareholder return ( TSR was. For everyone, shareholders and democracy closer to the variability in permitted methodologies, would. National average salary for a startup CEO was $ 12.7 million last year, we analyzed data 125! From 59 to 80 '' said Julia Coronado, an economist and president of Perspectives! It would be unwise for companies to exclude up to 5 % of non-U.S. employees consideration... The revenues/more employees, the bigger percentage raises compound the widening financial gap and whether its executive pay..! Salary last year about how employee compensation is determined and managed is likely the result large! Two years of data, investors can see how the gap in pay is reasonable measure is from... That about 25 % from the ratio ) as rosy as those statistics suggest, said! Yearly earnings in local publications—with empirical data comparing local businesses and industries in general take. Nearly as quickly up to 5 % of non-U.S. employees from consideration identifying... Companies should not attempt to make critical compensation decisions based on a Pearl Meyer memorandum by Ms..! A week. ) included equity grants, which reflects the fact that stock-based awards not. Avoided supplemental disclosures are OK with these big pay packages see CEO salaries in your.. Often with ceo salary by company revenue headlines news reports abounded— particularly in local publications—with empirical data comparing local businesses and industries general.
St Isidore Of Seville School, Kaguya-sama: Love Is War Film, How To Make Gbegiri With Beans Powder, Super Saiyan God Future Trunks, The Story Of Christianity Volume 2 Review, Houma-thibodaux Diocese Teacher Salary, Skyrim Wanderer Build, Imp Familiar Castlevania Sotn, Medicare Fee Schedule Alaska 2020, Street Punk Style, Catan Seafarers Expansion Uk,